[JUSTIFY]The curve in the figures above is the parabola $y=x^2$. Let us define a normal line as a line whose first quadrant intersection with the parabola is perpendicular to the parabola. Five normal lines are shown in the figures above.
For a while, the $x$-coordinate of the second quadrant intersection of a normal line with the parabola gets smaller as the $x$-coordinate of the first quadrant intersection gets smaller. But eventually a normal line's second quadrant intersection gets as small as it can get.
The extreme normal line is shown as a thick red line in the figures above. Once the normal lines pass the extreme normal line, the $x$-coordinate of the second quadrant intersections with the parabola start to increase.
The figures above show two pairs of normal lines. The two normal lines of a pair have the same second quadrant intersection with the parabola, but one is above the extreme normal line (in the first quadrant) and the other is below it.
(a) Find the normal line pair associated with a particular second quadrant intersection with the parabola.
(b) Hence, or otherwise, find the equation of the extreme normal line.
(c) Find the normal line that traps the smallest area between it and the parabola.[/JUSTIFY]