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Differential Equation of Unknown Type

paulmdrdo

Active member
May 13, 2013
386
can you help me solve this,

$\displaystyle (x^2+y^3+1)dx+x^4y^2dy=0$

I can't see any particular exact D.E form here. please help.
 

MarkFL

Administrator
Staff member
Feb 24, 2012
13,775
There is a special integrating factor that is a function of just $x$. Can you find it?
 

paulmdrdo

Active member
May 13, 2013
386
There is a special integrating factor that is a function of just $x$. Can you find it?
sorry MarkFL, I've already tried everything but still couldn't find something that's familiar to me. :(
 

MarkFL

Administrator
Staff member
Feb 24, 2012
13,775
This is what I was taught as a student:

If $M(x,y)\,dx+N(x,y)\,dy=0$ is neither separable nor linear, compute \(\displaystyle \frac{\partial M}{\partial y}\) and \(\displaystyle \frac{\partial N}{\partial x}\). If \(\displaystyle \frac{\partial M}{\partial y}=\frac{\partial N}{\partial x}\), then the equation is exact. If it is not exact, consider:

(1) \(\displaystyle \frac{\dfrac{\partial M}{\partial y}-\dfrac{\partial N}{\partial x}}{N}\)

If (1) is a function of just $x$, then an integrating factor is given by:

\(\displaystyle \mu(x)=\exp\left(\int\frac{\dfrac{\partial M}{\partial y}-\dfrac{\partial N}{\partial x}}{N}\,dx \right)\)

If not, consider:

(2) \(\displaystyle \frac{\dfrac{\partial N}{\partial x}-\dfrac{\partial M}{\partial y}}{M}\)

If (2) is a function of just $y$, then an integrating factor is given by:

\(\displaystyle \mu(y)=\exp\left(\int\frac{\dfrac{\partial N}{\partial x}-\dfrac{\partial M}{\partial y}}{M}\,dy \right)\)

Based on this, what do you conclude regarding the given problem?
 

HallsofIvy

Well-known member
MHB Math Helper
Jan 29, 2012
1,151
MarkFL told you: "There is a special integrating factor that is a function of just x . Can you find it?"

Call that function v(t). Multiplying both sides of your differential equation by that gives
[tex]v(x)(x^2+ y^3+ 1)dx+ v(x)x^4y^2dy= 0[/tex]. The condition that this be "exact" would be [tex](v(x)(x^2+ y^3+ 1))_y= (v(x)x^4y^2)_x[/tex]
[tex]3v(x)y^2= v'(x)x^4y^2+ 4v(x)x^3y^3[/tex]

Now you can divide through by y to get the differential equation
[tex]3v= x^4v'+ 4x^3v[/tex]

[tex]x^4v'= (4x^3- 3)v[/tex]

A separable equation for v.
 
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paulmdrdo

Active member
May 13, 2013
386

I get an integrating factor which is just a function of x to be

$\displaystyle e^{-(x^{-3}+4\ln(x))}$ or $\displaystyle \frac{e^{-x^{-3}}}{x^4}$ now what am I going to do next?


 
Last edited:

Prove It

Well-known member
MHB Math Helper
Jan 26, 2012
1,403

I get an integrating factor which is just a function of x to be

$\displaystyle e^{-(x^{-3}+4\ln(x))}$ now what am I going to do next?
Read HallsOfIvy's post.
 

paulmdrdo

Active member
May 13, 2013
386

I get an integrating factor which is just a function of x to be

$\displaystyle e^{-(x^{-3}+4\ln(x))}$ or $\displaystyle \frac{e^{-x^{-3}}}{x^4}$ now what am I going to do next?

multiplying this integrating factor to my orig D.E i get,



$\displaystyle \left(\frac{e^{-x^{-3}}}{x^2}+\frac{e^{-x^{-3}}y^3}{x^4}+\frac{e^{-x^{-3}}}{x^4}\right)dx+e^{-x^{-3}}y^2dy$

now letting

$\displaystyle M=\left(\frac{e^{-x^{-3}}}{x^2}+\frac{e^{-x^{-3}}y^3}{x^4}+\frac{e^{-x^{-3}}}{x^4}\right)$

then,

$\displaystyle \frac{\partial M}{\partial y}=3x^{-4}y^2e^{-x^{-3}}$

and letting

$\displaystyle N=e^{-x^{-3}}y^2dy$

then,

$\displaystyle \frac{\partial N}{\partial x}=3x^{-4}y^2e^{-x^{-3}}$

now I have

$\displaystyle \frac{\partial M}{\partial y}=\frac{\partial N}{\partial x}$

which tells us that I have an exact D.E

therefore there exist a Function $F(x,y)=c$ such that,

$\displaystyle\frac{\partial F}{\partial x}=M$ and $\displaystyle\frac{\partial F}{\partial y}=N$

now

$\displaystyle\frac{\partial F}{\partial x}=\left(\frac{e^{-x^{-3}}}{x^2}+\frac{e^{-x^{-3}}y^3}{x^4}+\frac{e^{-x^{-3}}}{x^4}\right)$

so, $\displaystyle F=\int \left(\frac{e^{-x^{-3}}}{x^2}+\frac{e^{-x^{-3}}y^3}{x^4}+\frac{e^{-x^{-3}}}{x^4}\right)\partial x$

can you help me continue with the integration? thanks!
 

MarkFL

Administrator
Staff member
Feb 24, 2012
13,775
I would next consider writing:

\(\displaystyle F=\int e^{-x^{-3}}x^{-2}\,dx+\left(y^3+1 \right)\int e^{-x^{-3}}x^{-4}\,dx+g(y)\)

Now what can we do to each integral to get an appropriate differential for the obvious substitutions?
 

paulmdrdo

Active member
May 13, 2013
386
I would next consider writing:

\(\displaystyle F=\int e^{-x^{-3}}x^{-2}\,dx+\left(y^3+1 \right)\int e^{-x^{-3}}x^{-4}\,dx+g(y)\)

Now what can we do to each integral to get an appropriate differential for the obvious substitutions?
use integration by parts? Am I right?
 

MarkFL

Administrator
Staff member
Feb 24, 2012
13,775
use integration by parts? Am I right?
Yes, eventually and on the first integral on the right only. But first we need to "fix" the two integrals so that the differentials we need in using an appropriate substitution will be present.
 

LATEBLOOMER

New member
Aug 7, 2013
21
:) :)
 

paulmdrdo

Active member
May 13, 2013
386
Yes, eventually and on the first integral on the right only. But first we need to "fix" the two integrals so that the differentials we need in using an appropriate substitution will be present.
I don't know how to do that fixing of integrals. :confused:
 

MarkFL

Administrator
Staff member
Feb 24, 2012
13,775
For an integral of the form:

\(\displaystyle \int e^{-x^{-3}}x^n\,dx\)

What would you begin by saying would be a good candidate for a substitution?
 

paulmdrdo

Active member
May 13, 2013
386
For an integral of the form:

\(\displaystyle \int e^{-x^{-3}}x^n\,dx\)

What would you begin by saying would be a good candidate for a substitution?
Sorry, still don't get it.:(
 

MarkFL

Administrator
Staff member
Feb 24, 2012
13,775
Sorry, still don't get it.:(
Don't you think the following substitution would be a good place to start?

\(\displaystyle u=-x^{-3}\)

So, what does your differential then need to be?