- Thread starter
- #1

- Let $a\in E.$ Prove that $a$ is a limit point of the sequence $(f^n(a))_{n>0}.$ ($f^n(a)$ means the composition of $f,$ $n-$ times. Example: $f^3(a)=f(f(f(a))).$ )
- Conclude that $f(E)$ is dense on $E.$

- Thread starter Dense
- Start date

- Thread starter
- #1

- Let $a\in E.$ Prove that $a$ is a limit point of the sequence $(f^n(a))_{n>0}.$ ($f^n(a)$ means the composition of $f,$ $n-$ times. Example: $f^3(a)=f(f(f(a))).$ )
- Conclude that $f(E)$ is dense on $E.$

- Moderator
- #2

- Feb 7, 2012

- 2,725

Proof by contradiction: suppose the result is false. Then there exists $\varepsilon>0$ such that $d(f^k(a),a) > \varepsilon$ for all $k\geqslant1.$ The condition on $f$ then implies that $d(f^{k+1}(a),f(a)) > \varepsilon$, and (by induction) $d(f^{k+l}(a),f^l(a)) > \varepsilon$ for all $l\geqslant0.$ In other words, $d(f^m(a),f^n(a)) > \varepsilon$ for all $m\ne n.$ Now get a contradiction by using compactness.Let $(E,d)$ be a compact metric space. Let $f:E\to E$ be a function such that for all $x,y\in E$ is $d(f(x),f(y))\ge d(x,y).$

- Let $a\in E.$ Prove that $a$ is a limit point of the sequence $(f^n(a))_{n>0}.$